About Asthma

    Overview of Asthma

    Asthma is a long time circumstance wherein air passages withinside the lungs end up slender because of irritation and contraction of the muscle tissues across the small airlines.
    This reasons signs and symptoms including cough, wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness.
    These signs and symptoms are intermittent and are frequently worse at night time or at some point of exercising.
    Some of the not unusualplace triggers which could make bronchial allergies signs and symptoms worse consist of viral infections (colds), dirt, smoke, fumes, modifications withinside the weather, grass and tree pollen, animal fur and feathers, dirt mites (dermatophagoides), sturdy soaps, and perfume.
    These triggers range from individual to individual.
    Asthma is identified in particular with lung feature exams however different blood exams and allergic reaction trying out additionally allows in making right prognosis.
    The remedy of bronchial allergies is good sized however
    beta-2 agonists and corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of bronchial allergies remedy.
    Lifestyle and prevention measures including fending off triggers, fending off meals that growth the threat of an bronchial allergies assault, and staying farfar from strain can be of high-quality assist in terms of controlling bronchial allergies assaults.
    In extreme cases, it may result in a circumstance called repute asthmaticus that could require hospitalization.

    Facts about Asthma

    Usually visible in
    Children under 15 years of age
    Gender affected
    Both guys and women
    Body part(s) involved
    Worldwide: 235 million(2016)
    India: 1-2% (2016)
    Mimicking Conditions
    Vocal twine dysfunction
    Tracheal or bronchial obstruction because of overseas frame or tumor
    Heart failure
    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
    Chronic sinusitis
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Anaphylactic reaction
    Necessary fitness exams/imaging
    Blood exams: CBC, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) & Absolute eosinophil count (AEC)
    Pulmonary feature check
    Chest X-ray
    Allergy panel/bronchial allergies/rhinitis screening check

    Treatment summary of Asthma

    Corticosteroids: Beclomethasone, Fluticasone & Prednisolone
    Leukotriene receptor antagonists: Montelukast & Zafirlukast
    Short-performing beta agonists (SABA): Salbutamol & Terbutaline
    Long-performing beta agonists (LABA): Salmeterol & Formoterol
    Methylxanthines: Theophylline
    Anticholinergic tablets: Ipratropium & Tiotropium

    Specialist to seek advice from


    Symptoms of Asthma

    You can also additionally suspect bronchial allergies, in case you or your baby are noticing signs and symptoms including coughing and wheezing (whistling sounds) at the same time as respiratory.
    These are not unusualplace bronchial allergies signs and symptoms.
    The signs and symptoms of bronchial allergies may be characterised with the aid of using:
    Breathlessness (shortness of breath) while uncovered to triggering elements
    Cyanosis (blue discolouration of face and extremities)
    Wheezing or whistling sound at some point of respiratory
    Chest tightness, which appears like a tightened band across the chest
    Intense coughing or the urge to cough that can be caused with the aid of using an allergen or different environmental elements
    Fatigue at some point of and after an bronchial allergies assault
    These signs and symptoms typically arise at some point of assaults, normally at night time time.
    This is why a number of you could experience worn-out at some point of the day.
    During an bronchial allergies assault, respiratory problems can worsen and become greater critical shortness of breath, if now no longer treated.

    Most medical doctors become aware of bronchial allergies as intermittent (comes and goes) or persistent (lasting).
    Persistent bronchial allergies may be mild, mild, or extreme.
    The severity of the circumstance is primarily based totally at the frequency of assaults.


    Causes of Asthma

    The genuine reason of bronchial allergies remains now no longer recognized.
    It is likewise believed to be a multifactorial pathology this is stricken by each genetics and environmental elements.
    Ideally, while your immune machine comes in touch with an allergen, it triggers an immune reaction to combat in opposition to the allergen.
    But in human beings with bronchial allergies, this immune reaction may be very sturdy which results in irritation.
    This in turn, reasons the airlines to swell and end up narrowed inflicting it hard to respire.

    During an bronchial allergies assault, 3 matters can happen:
    Bronchospasm: The muscle tissues across the airlines constrict (tighten).
    When they tighten, it makes the airlines slender.
    Air can't waft freely via constricted airlines.

    Inflammation: The airway linings end up swollen.
    Swollen airlines don't permit as a great deal air in or out of the lungs.

    Mucus manufacturing: During the assault, your frame creates greater mucus.
    This thick mucus clogs airlines.

    Asthma in youngsters According to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines, round three hundred million people international which include each adults and youngsters are bothered with bronchial allergies.
    As in step with the World Health Organization (WHO), India has round 15-20 million asthmatics.
    It is anticipated that the superiority of bronchial allergies in children elderly five-eleven years is among 10-15%.

    Most children with bronchial allergies might not display any symptoms and symptoms or signs and symptoms of the circumstance for a long term or till they've an bronchial allergies assault.
    Moreover, in maximum cases, the signs and symptoms of bronchial allergies in youngsters may be harassed with different respiration illnesses.
    Hence, the prognosis of bronchial allergies in children is pretty hard and is primarily based totally simply at the signs and symptoms.

    Asthma in being pregnant Uncontrolled bronchial allergies manner that the mom isn't always getting sufficient oxygen.
    This evidently has destructive results for the mom, continuation of being pregnant and at the fetus withinside the mom.
    Well-managed bronchial allergies ends in a regular being pregnant, regular shipping and a regular baby.

    Some of the not unusualplace worries a pregnant lady may have concerning bronchial allergies are:
    Will bronchial allergies adversely have an effect on my being pregnant or my baby?
    Will being pregnant adversely have an effect on my bronchial allergies?
    Can bronchial allergies drugs be taken effectively at some point of being pregnant?
    Will my baby additionally have bronchial allergies?
    Well-controlled and properly-managed bronchial allergies does now no longer create troubles at some point of being pregnant and shipping; neither for the mom and nor for the baby.

    Risk Factors of Asthma

    Some of the not unusualplace triggers/threat elements for bronchial allergies consist of:
    Genetics: Evidence shows that presence of bronchial allergies and its severity may be stimulated with the aid of using the genome or genetic make up of someone.

    Air pollution: Exposure to outside pollution like nitrogen dioxide and diesel particulates, is related to accelerated bronchial allergies signs and symptoms.

    Diet: Diets low in antioxidants including Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, magnesium, &
    selenium and can additionally predispose to the improvement of bronchial allergies.

    Viral infections: Respiratory tract infections that can be because of a virulent disease at some point of early life may be a reason for bronchial allergies in adulthood.

    Allergens: Environmental allergens including pollen dirt or mites can cause an bronchial allergies assault.

    Medications: Certain drugs including aspirin & beta-blockers also are a reason of bronchial allergies assaults in positive people.

    Exercise: Exercise can also additionally worsen bronchial allergies and make respiratory hard.

    Chronic sinusitis: Post-nasal drip because of sinusitis can cause coughing and itchy throat that can worsen bronchial allergies signs and symptoms.

    Insects or plant life: Some human beings can be allergic to positive plant life or bugs which can act as a cause for bronchial allergies.

    Obesity: Being obese places you at a better threat of bronchial allergies and its signs and symptoms including shortness of breath and wheezing.

    Stress: Emotional elements including strain can cause now no longer best tension however additionally bronchial allergies signs and symptoms like breathlessness.

    Smoke: Smoke or chemical irritants including fumes also can result in bronchial allergies signs and symptoms like wheezing and shortness of breath.

    Diagnosis of Asthma

    Asthma is typically suspected if the affected person has a records of recurrent dry coughing, specially at night time and early morning, along side different signs and symptoms including chest tightness, shortness of breath, and wheezing sound.
    Following are the diagnostic exams for bronchial allergies:
    1. Physical examination During a bodily examination, your medical doctor may examine your eyes, ears, nostril or throat for swelling or drainage which can also additionally imply allergic reaction.
    Also, checking your chest and lungs for wheezing or whistling sounds which can also additionally imply irritation and contraction of airlines.

    2. Blood exams: Your medical doctor can also additionally suggest positive blood exams to test the extent of irritation, antibodies and eosinophils (a form of immune cells).
    These consist of entire blood count (CBC), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and absolute eosinophil count (AEC).

    Pulmonary feature check: Pulmonary or lung feature exams are carried out to discover if there are any airway obstructions.
    In case there may be scientific suspicion however the lung feature check comes out to be regular, then different exams including post-exercising check or allergen undertaking check can assist in figuring out bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults.

    Chest X-ray: In extreme cases, hyperinflation of lungs can be visible which may be detected with the assist of chest x-ray.

    Allergy panel/bronchial allergies/rhinitis screening check: If you're displaying signs and symptoms of bronchial allergies and an allergic cause is suspected, then allergic reaction prognosis is typically endorsed.
    The prognosis of an allergic reaction includes scientific records, pores and skin prick check, and particular IgE (immunoglobuline institution E) check.

    Prevention of Asthma

    The high-quality feasible manner to save you bronchial allergies is to take away or lessen publicity to triggers that might result in bronchial allergies assaults.
    Some of the not unusualplace triggers of bronchial allergies and their prevention consist of:
    Staying farfar from allergens including animal dander, dirt mites, mold, etc.

    If feasible, put on a masks every time you are available in touch with smoke and different aggravating fumes.

    Patients laid low with bronchial allergies must keep away from publicity to viruses and different respiration infections.

    It is critical to clean your arms carefully.
    Don't neglect about to get your flu and/or pneumonia vaccine each 12 months and decrease the dangers of an bronchial allergies assault.

    Maintain an bronchial allergies diary and be aware particular triggers so that you can tell your medical doctor approximately those and decrease flare-ups withinside the future.

    Specific hints primarily based totally at the triggers
    1. Exercise-brought on bronchial allergies
    Avoid exercise in bloodless, dry air.

    Workout interior or keep away from exercise at some point of early morning hours.

    If someone may be very a great deal into workout routines then heat up earlier than running out, this allows the airlines to regulate and for this reason eases respiratory.

    Before running out, it's far useful to apply an bronchial allergies inhaler or bronchodilator,
    those bronchial allergies medicines can assist to save you the airlines from contracting, and assist manage exercising-brought on bronchial allergies.

    2. Drug-brought on bronchial allergies
    Stay farfar from meals or medicines that cause bronchial allergies assaults like aspirin or beta-blockers.

    Oral contraceptives can also additionally produce bronchial allergies exacerbation with long time use and excessive doses of postmenopausal hormone alternative remedy additionally growth the threat of bronchial allergies.

    Pregnancy-brought on bronchial allergies
    Avoid smoking and locations wherein human beings smoke, due to the fact cigarette smoke can growth the threat of getting an bronchial allergies assault.

    Avoid triggers which could result in bronchial allergies assaults every time feasible, relying at the form of allergic reaction, triggers may consist of animal fur, pollen, bloodless air or dirt mites.

    Stress-brought on bronchial allergies
    Emotional strain also can cause bronchial allergies assaults, consequently you could exercise meditation and different rest strategies to preserve strain at bay.

    Getting sufficient rest, ingesting a wholesome diet, and exercise frequently are frequently powerful approaches to lessen strain levels.
    People can also additionally discover remedy from bronchial allergies signs and symptoms with the aid of using making few life-style modifications to assist manipulate their strain levels.

    Specialist To Visit for Asthma

    If you've got got bronchial allergies or your signs and symptoms are much like bronchial allergies and are seeking out a medical doctor then those experts can assist:
    Allergist or immunologist
    You must are trying to find instant scientific interest if:
    You begin feeling dizzy or susceptible after or at some point of an bronchial allergies assault
    You are not able to finish sentences in a single breath
    You be aware bluish discoloration of face and extremities (cyanosis)
    You are not able to perform a recurring pastime like cleansing or different each day chores
    Your cough would not enhance with medicinal drug
    You are listening to a wheezing sound at the same time as breathing in and exhaling and you're respiratory in a different way out of your traditional respiratory
    Your wheezing does now no longer get higher even after taking the drugs as maximum speedy remedy bronchial allergies drugs paintings inside 15 - 20 mins

    Treatments for Asthma

    The not unusualplace remedy technique for human beings with bronchial allergies includes use of preventive drugs (additionally called controllers) and brief-remedy drugs (additionally called relievers)
    Controllers These drugs assist lessen the swelling of the airlines and save you mucus formation.
    They are normally used to save you bronchial allergies assaults and shield the lungs.
    These medication lessons are:
    1. Corticosteroids These are the high-quality and maximum normally prescription drugs for bronchial allergies.
    They act with the aid of using inhibiting the pastime of the inflammatory compounds including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamines which can be liable for irritation.
    They are widely categorized into:
    a) Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs): ICSs are among the only anti inflammatory medicines to be had to deal with bronchial allergies.
    Low-dose monotherapy of inhaled corticosteroids is typically given as first-line upkeep remedy for maximum youngsters and adults handling bronchial allergies.
    Regular use of ICS had been proven to lessen signs and symptoms and flare ups of bronchial allergies along side development in lung feature.
    Example of medication that belong to this class are:
    b) Oral corticosteroids: These are typically given for the extreme remedy of mild to extreme bronchial allergies.
    Prolonged use of oral steroids are typically averted because it has been related to doubtlessly critical facet effects.
    Examples consist of:
    2. Leukotriene receptor antagonists These drugs are powerful for the remedy of bronchial allergies, are properly tolerated and are secure to apply.
    As the call shows, they paintings with the aid of using blockading the movement of an irritation-inflicting chemical messenger referred to as leukotriene.
    These drugs thereby lessen the irritation withinside the airlines, stopping bronchial allergies and relieving signs and symptoms of allergies.
    Common examples of those drugs consist of:
    Biological healing procedures Biological healing procedures including the anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, instance omalizumab, can lessen the frequency of bronchial allergies assaults.
    This drug is given subcutaneously as soon as each 2?four weeks.
    This medication is particular to sufferers with hard to manipulate bronchial allergies with an accelerated serum IgE level.
    It is likewise given to human beings whose bronchial allergies signs and symptoms do now no longer enhance inspite of ICS remedy in mixture with a 2d controller medicinal drug.

    Relievers (bronchodilators) These are the favored medicines for the remedy and upkeep of acute signs and symptoms of bronchial allergies and are typically prescribed to all sufferers with bronchial allergies.
    They paintings with the aid of using dilating the bronchioles, thereby offering best brief remedy.
    These drugs are used to alleviate the signs and symptoms of bronchial allergies after they arise however now no longer opposite the irritation that has already occured.
    Drugs that belong to the elegance of bronchodilators are:
    1. Short-performing beta agonists (SABA) These drugs are used for the remedy of bronchial allergies signs and symptoms and its exacerbations.
    As the call shows, those are recognized to offer brief remedy.
    For instance, salbutamol that's the not unusualplace drug, has an movement onset of below five mins & lasts for three to six hours.
    Some of the not unusualplace examples consist of:
    2. Long- performing beta agonists (LABA) This elegance of drugs include low doses of controllers and relievers with an extended lasting impact.
    These now no longer best assist you to alleviate the signs and symptoms however additionally shield you from bronchial allergies assaults.
    These drugs are frequently utilized in conjugation with different tablets including corticosteroids.
    They have an movement onset of greater than five mins however the impact lasts for at the least 12 hours.
    Common instance consist of:
    Methylxanthines These are a brand new elegance of drugs used for the remedy of bronchial allergies.
    It is thought to resource withinside the remedy of bronchial allergies with the aid of using decreasing airlines irritation and airway obstruction that's visible in asthmatics.
    Theophylline is one of the maximum normally prescribed methylxanthines.

    Anticholinergic tablets This elegance of drugs paintings with the aid of using blockading the movement of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter which performs a key function in controlling the constriction of easy muscle tissues and irritation.
    These are similarly categorized into:
    Short performing muscarinic antagonists (SAMA): Ipratropium is the not unusualplace medication that belongs to this elegance.
    It is used to deal with and save you the signs and symptoms of bronchial allergies and COPD along side enhancing the respiratory.

    Long performing muscarinic antagonists (LAMA): Tiotropium is the not unusualplace medication that's in particular used for the remedy of continual obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchial allergies.

    Other healing procedures Bronchial thermoplasty is a bronchoscopic remedy the use of thermal strength to ablate airway easy muscle in reachable bronchi.
    It can also additionally lessen exacerbations in sufferers now no longer responding to maximal inhaler remedy.


    Home Care for Asthma

    To take care of your circumstance, you could observe those easy steps at domestic and manipulate your bronchial allergies higher:
    1. Stay farfar from allergens You should recognise what ought to cause bronchial allergies including plant life, dirt or positive meals gadgets and preserve them farfar from your domestic.

    2. Stay hydrated Drinking masses of water at some stage in the day continues the mucus thinner, allows in higher breath manage and digestion, thereby preserving bronchial allergies on top of things.

    Keep the air filters smooth It is critical to preserve the air round you smooth and for which you want to preserve the air filters wiped clean or modified to keep away from triggers for bronchial allergies.

    Avoid sturdy fragrances Not best dirt, however sturdy fragrances including cleansing sprays, perfumes & air fresheners also can cause bronchial allergies.
    Therefore, it's far high-quality to keep away from those sprays.

    Keep your self lively It is normally believed that exercising can cause bronchial allergies assaults.
    However, in case you are taking your medicinal drug frequently and indulge best in mild exercising then you could effortlessly live lively and fit.

    6. Avoid publicity to dirt Keep your environment smooth to keep away from building up of dirt.
    Always put on a masks at the same time as cleansing or vacuuming.

    7. Keep inhaler on hand in any respect instances It is critical to continually preserve an inhaler with you at effortlessly reachable locations in instances of emergency.

    Complications of Asthma

    If bronchial allergies is left undiagnosed or untreated, it may reason an accelerated threat of lung scarring.
    Scarring is the everlasting harm on your lungs and airlines, wherein you discover it tough to respire except supplied with outside resource.
    This is an irreversible degree of bronchial allergies, this means that it can't be corrected with medicines.
    Some of the everlasting modifications which can be feasible consist of:
    Increased manufacturing of mucus
    Thickening of airlines
    Irreversible narrowing of airlines over time
    Pulmonary hypertension
    It is a nation wherein there can be a threat of entire respiration failure with extreme assaults of bronchial allergies.
    During a extreme assault of bronchial allergies, the airlines can get shut, or even the emergency medicines fail to paintings.

    Alternative Therapies For Asthma
    1. Home treatments for bronchial allergies
    Garlic: Garlic is thought to have numerous fitness benefits, which include anti inflammatory properties, Due to the anti inflammatory nature of garlic it is able to be useful in relieving the signs and symptoms of bronchial allergies.

    Ginger: Ginger has anti inflammatory properties, which can be useful in treating extreme bronchial allergies.
    You can take oral ginger supplements, that can assist enhance bronchial allergies signs and symptoms.

    Honey: Honey is frequently used as a treatment for colds.
    It allows in soothing sore throat and decreases coughing.
    You can take honey with natural tea or heat water to offer remedy on your signs and symptoms.

    Omega-three fatty acids: Foods wealthy in omega-three fatty acids including fish and flax seeds can assist in lowering airway irritation and enhancing lung feature in human beings laid low with extreme bronchial allergies.

    Caffeine: Caffeine is thought to be a bronchodilator, which reduces fatigue of respiration muscle.
    Therefore, it's far powerful for human beings laid low with bronchial allergies.
    It is likewise recognized to raise the feature of airlines for some hours after consumption.

    2. Breathing strategies Breathing sporting activities can be useful in decreasing your bronchial allergies signs and symptoms with the aid of using respiratory slowly and gently.
    Breathing strategies consciousness on respiratory from your nostril in place of respiratory out out of your mouth.
    Breathing from your mouth has a tendency to dry out your airlines and cause them to greater touchy to allergens, thereby triggering an bronchial allergies assault.

    Yoga Yoga accommodates each stretching and respiratory sporting activities that assist in retaining your normal fitness.
    Yoga is likewise a high-quality strain buster, that can assist in lowering the each day strain, which can be a cause on your bronchial allergies.

    Mindfulness Mindfulness refers to a form of meditation that specializes in being withinside the gift and may be practiced nearly anywhere.
    All you want to do is take a seat down in a quiet place, near your eyes, and consciousness your interest on both your breath, thoughts, feelings, or sensations occuring on your frame.

    As it's far a high-quality strain-relieving exercising, it may be pretty useful in relieving strain-associated bronchial allergies signs and symptoms.

    Living With Asthma

    Who stated asthmatics ought to stay their existence below restrictions? If your bronchial allergies is below manage, you could lead a regular, lively existence much like others.
    Do now no longer permit bronchial allergies manage your existence with those easy hints and tricks.

    1. Stay knowledgeable and privy to your circumstance It is pretty not unusualplace to experience annoying approximately your circumstance, in case you aren't privy to the circumstance.
    It is consequently cautioned you should be conscious and properly knowledgeable approximately the circumstance.
    This can also additionally consist of studying books approximately the circumstance.
    If discovering online, then ensure you observe valid reassets and now no longer the entirety that turns up on seek engines.
    It is likewise an amazing concept to talk on your medical doctor and get all of your queries spoke back with the aid of using a scientific expert who is aware of approximately your circumstance in depth.

    2. Always take your medicinal drug on time Taking your medicines on time can play an critical function withinside the control of bronchial allergies signs and symptoms.
    Remember preventive drugs for bronchial allergies assist to lessen the swelling over time.
    You do now no longer end up hooked on it nor do the drugs end up much less powerful with time.
    Your medical doctor will ask you to take those drugs frequently, in case you:
    Have common bronchial allergies assaults
    Wake up in nighttime because of bronchial allergies
    Use brief remedy medication greater frequently (like two times in a week) to forestall bronchial allergies assaults
    Note: If you're pregnant, communicate on your medical doctor due to the fact maximum of the drugs are secure at some point of being pregnant.
    Moreover, preserving your bronchial allergies on top of things can shield your baby.

    Never leave out your medical doctor's appointment It is critical to agenda appointments at normal intervals, even in case you experience excellent or don't have any respiratory issues.
    This is due to the fact those check-ups will assist the medical doctor preserve music of the bronchial allergies signs and symptoms and make modifications to the remedy plan accordingly.
    It additionally lets you save you headaches as your medical doctor continues a music of your circumstance on a normal basis.

    You may even ask for an bronchial allergies movement plan out of your medical doctor so one can assist you to recognise while your bronchial allergies is getting worse and a way to reply to it.
    Talk on your medical doctor, in case your bronchial allergies isn't always but managed with use of drugs.
    Also, tell your medical doctor, when you have to take controllers earlier than, at some point of or after exercising.

    Make a few unique modifications for the affected person You could make a few minor modifications on your bed room to save you bronchial allergies assaults.
    For instance:
    Do now no longer permit rugs or carpets on your room as those ought to get dusty or moldy.

    Say no to soaps, shampoos, incense, or lotion that odor like perfumes, in case your bronchial allergies is caused with the aid of using sturdy smells.
    No smoking or sturdy smells withinside the bed room as properly.

    Do now no longer permit animals on your bed room.
    If feasible, preserve them out of your own home and ask a person to smooth the vicinity or their litter.

    Use dirt-evidence covers with zippers for pillows, mattresses, and quilt.
    Avoid pillows or mattresses crafted from straw as those can cause an allergic reaction.

    Wash mattress sheets, pillow covers, and blankets in warm water and solar dry them.

    Always preserve your home windows open, mainly whilst you are cooking, cleansing or if there may be any sturdy odor.

    Do the chores like painting, vacuuming, cleansing, or dusting while the individual isn't always round.
    The equal rule applies while the use of sprays or disinfectants.

    Have your inhaler close to the bedside to keep away from panic at some point of past due night time signs and symptoms.
    Also, continually preserve your inhaler with you at the same time as journeying.

    Maintain an bronchial allergies journal
    Maintain an bronchial allergies diary, wherein you be aware down the time, severity and triggers of your bronchial allergies assaults.
    Different human beings have distinct triggers so noting them down allow you to to recognise your cause and keep away from assaults.
    This ought to even assist in identifying the remedy and handling the circumstance in a higher manner.

    6. Get vaccinated As human beings with bronchial allergies are at a excessive threat of growing headaches from respiration infections including influenza and pneumonia, it's far critical to get vaccinated.
    Ask your medical doctor approximately the endorsed one.

    Everyone likes to journey and notice new locations! Asthmatics aren't anyt any distinct.
    But journeying and touring new locations poses positive dangers and troubles.
    But with right care and interest to detail, asthmatics can effectively journey and experience with out bronchial allergies gambling spoilsport!

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