About Dandruff

    Overview of Dandruff

    Dandruff is a not unusualplace hair trouble that wishes no introduction.
    It influences round 50% of human beings global sooner or later of their life, regardless of their gender and ethnicity.

    Dandruff is a scalp sickness which reasons the scalp to flake and/or itch.
    The useless cells at the scalp generally tend to paste to every different because of floor particles and oil at the scalp.
    This in flip results in flakes with itchy scalp and additionally reasons the hair to shed at a quicker than everyday rate.
    Dandruff is visible to usually arise among puberty to center-age as that is the section while the sebaceous glands are maximum active.
    The severity of dandruff might also additionally vary with the season however it typically worsens all through winter.

    If left untreated, it may purpose fungal infections of the pores and skin & may cause excessive hair fall.
    The not unusualplace remedy alternatives for dandruff encompass use of domestic treatments and medicated shampoos.

    Facts about Dandruff

    Usually visible in
    All age group
    Gender affected
    Both men & women
    Body part(s) involved
    Worldwide: 50% (2010)
    India: 7.6?18.7% (2015)
    Mimicking Conditions
    Seborrheic dermatitis
    Scalp folliculitis
    Head Lice

    Treatment summary of Dandruff

    Antifungal agents: Zinc Pyrithione, Ketoconazole, Climbazole, Selenium Sulphide, Clotrimazole & Piroctone Olamine

    Anti-proliferative agents: Coal tar
    Keratolytics: Salicylic acid

    Specialist to seek advice from


    Symptoms of Dandruff

    Dandruff is a not unusualplace scalp sickness characterized through:
    Flaky white to yellowish scales at the scalp
    Itching of the scalp
    Dry or oily scalp
    Flakes because of dry scalp have a tendency to be smaller and whiter.
    Dandruff flakes are large and typically yellow-tinged because of oily scalp.

    Signs your dandruff can be excessive:
    ? Large regions of redness or swelling at the scalp
    ? Severe itching and worsened flakes over time
    ? Having signs even after the use of anti-dandruff shampoo for a month


    Causes of Dandruff

    The reasons of dandruff range from character to character, however it is also a end result of mistaken dealing with of hair and scalp.
    According to experts, the purpose of dandruff is speedy maturing and dropping of scalp cells brought on through immoderate oil secretion.

    Broadly speaking, the reasons may be categorized into:
    1. Microbial factors A) Fungal infection Malassezia, a fungi, is one of the main reasons of dandruff.
    It is understood to stimulate the enzyme lipase that is accountable for the manufacturing of saturated fat and unsaturated fat.
    While saturated fat resource withinside the increase and department of the fungal cells, unsaturated fat are accountable for pores and skin irritation and irritation.
    Moreover, it additionally alters the everyday dropping of the useless cells main to seen white flakes.

    B) Bacterial infection Bacteria that may be observed at the scalp and might cause dandruff encompass Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    2. Non-microbial factors ? Dry scalp
    ? Oily or angry pores and skin/hair
    ? Poor hair hygiene
    ? Use of hair cosmetics/equipment
    ? Scalp problems like psoriasis and eczema
    ? Infrequent shampooing
    ? Extreme climate situations

    Risk Factors of Dandruff

    You are much more likely to have dandruff if:
    1. Age Dandruff typically starts all through teenage years and keeps via center age.
    That does not imply older adults do not get dandruff.
    For a few human beings, the trouble may be lifelong.

    2. Being male Dandruff is greater typical in adult males than in females.

    Certain persistent illnesses
    Parkinson's ailment and different illnesses that have an effect on the apprehensive machine additionally appear to boom threat of dandruff.
    So does having HIV or a weakened immune machine.

    Other situations ? Stress and fatigue
    ? Your scalp feels oily
    ? You enjoy excessive itching even if the scalp does now no longer experience dry
    ? Your hair appears greasy at maximum times
    ? Not brushing your hair properly
    ? Leaving oily hair unattended
    ? Using harsh shampoos
    ? Using styling equipment too regularly

    Diagnosis of Dandruff

    Dandruff is recognized through a easy bodily exam of the scalp.
    You might also additionally also be requested some questions on your hair care habitual and signs.
    It can be carried out through a dermatologist (pores and skin specialist) or a trichologist (hair and scalp specialist).
    Your dandruff can be labeled as slight or excessive and on the idea of it, your physician might also additionally prescribe suitable remedy.
    There aren't anyt any blood exams or imaging exams to diagnose dandruff.

    Prevention of Dandruff

    By taking good enough measures to enhance hair health, you could reduce the possibilities of dandruff.

    Cut down on excessive sugar foods, fat and alcohol
    Develop a hair and scalp care habitual in keeping with your hair type.
    If you generally tend to have an oily scalp, frquent shampooing might also additionally assist save you dandruff.
    Gently rubdown your scalp to loosen flakes.
    Rinse thoroughly.
    If your hair has a tendency to be dry and your scalp is sensitive, shampoo much less regularly and situation your scalp in among washings.

    Limit hair-styling merchandise.
    Hair-styling merchandise can building up for your hair and scalp, making them oilier.

    Brush your hair regularly to enhance circulate withinside the scalp.

    Do now no longer proportion combs
    When going out, cowl your hair as dust and grease aggravates the trouble

    Specialist To Visit for Dandruff

    If you've got got dry and itchy scalp or white flakes for your scalp, then do seek advice from a physician to deal with your situation.
    The excellent physician to go to to your pores and skin and hair associated issues are:
    Dandruff might also additionally worsen if fungus Malassezia will increase in number.
    Consult a dermatologist if:
    Dandruff does now no longer get managed notwithstanding common cleaning with over the counter shampoos.

    Flakiness additionally spreads to eyebrows, ears, and eyelid margins (seborrheic dermatitis).

    The scalp is red, swollen, or extraordinarily itchy.

    Treatments for Dandruff

    In maximum patients, dandruff may be managed through every day washing with mild anti dandruff shampoo.
    If your dandruff is excessive, the physician might also additionally prescribe medicated shampoos that comprise chemical substances together with Zinc Pyrithione, Selenium sulphide, Ketoconazole, Coal Tar and Salicylic Acid.

    These remedy alternatives are geared toward treating the purpose of the dandruff and handling the signs.

    1. Antifungal agents As the call suggests, this magnificence of medication are geared toward treating the fungus that is accountable for the dandruff.
    Most of those tablets paintings through affecting the membrane of the fungus which results in loss of life of the microbes thereby helping withinside the remedy.
    Examples of this magnificence of medication encompass:
    Zinc Pyrithione facilitates to save you itching and flaking
    Ketoconazole acts as a wide spectrum antifungal agent through disrupting the membrane function
    Climbazole works through hindering the everyday functioning of the fungal mobileular membrane
    Selenium Sulphide primarily based totally shampoos can discolor the hair and scalp.

    Clotrimazole inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol (a sort of fat) thereby helping withinside the remedy
    Piroctone Olamine inhibits the degradation of sebum triglycerides to oleic acid and arachidonic acid which can be accountable for irritation and itching
    2. Anti-proliferative agents Coal tar is used withinside the shape of tar primarily based totally shampoos and it's miles one of the maximum not unusualplace examples of this magnificence of anti-dandruff chemical substances.
    It consists of greater than 10,000 of chemicals that inhibit proliferation (department of the microbes) and irritation.
    This is particularly used to alleviate the signs of dandruff.

    Keratolytics It acts as a keratolytic agent which is understood to purpose the pores and skin to shed useless cells from the pinnacle layer through growing the moisture withinside the scap.
    As it prevents clumping of the useless cells collectively it facilitates to clean dandruff from the scalp.
    Salicylic acid is one of the maximum not unusualplace examples of keratolytic agents.

    These tablets are to be had in diverse bureaucracy together with shampoos, lotions/applications, creams, natural oils and gels.


    Home Care for Dandruff

    By making small modifications for your lifestyle, you could take away dandruff effectively.
    Here are a few powerful approaches to manipulate dandruff:
    1. Brush your hair regularly Brushing your hair guarantees that blood circulate for your scalp is maintained.
    When you sweep your hair, you put off useless cells out of your head.
    But brushes with sharp ends will purpose swelling and reddish patches for your scalp.
    Use a paddle brush.
    Brushes which have balls withinside the ends are even milder.

    2. Avoid harsh shampoos Certain chemical substances in shampoos can cause dry and irritable pores and skin and precipitate itching and dandruff.
    Choose a slight natural shampoo this is mild at the hair and has a like minded pH stability.

    Avoid styling equipment Heat and chemical substances make your hair susceptible and harm the scalp.
    Straightening, blow-drying, and perming or any form of synthetic warmth can purpose irreparable harm and precipitate dandruff.

    Pick an anti-dandruff shampoo Some generally advocated anti-dandruff shampoos to be had over-the-counter are Pyrithione zinc shampoos, Tar-primarily based totally shampoos and Ketoconazole shampoo.
    It is suggested to apply those shampoos every day but as dandruff receives better, exchange it with a few different shampoo to keep away from lack of hair health.

    5. Eat wholesome Enrich your food plan with most beneficial quantities of inexperienced vegetables, fish oil, lean proteins and fruits.
    Include inexperienced leafy greens together with broccoli, kale, lettuce in your every day food plan.
    It encourages and improves your pores and skin, hair, nails and common health.
    Lean proteins (eggs, nuts, beans) assist in constructing wholesome pores and skin and hair.
    So upload those in your every day servings in a few or the opposite shape.

    6. Get a touch sun Sunlight can be correct for controlling dandruff.
    But due to the fact publicity to ultraviolet mild damages your pores and skin and will increase your threat of pores and skin cancer, do not sunbathe.
    Instead, simply spend a touch time outdoors.
    And make certain to put on sunscreen for your face and body.

    Complications of Dandruff

    Dandruff ought to now no longer be taken gently due to the fact
    It can be pointing in the direction of overgrowth of a fungus (known as Malassezia) which regardless of being gift at the scalp of maximum human beings does now no longer purpose any signs
    It can gradual down your hair increase
    It denotes a microinflammation, which is probably effortlessly neglected as there aren't anyt any effortlessly observable signs.

    So when you have dandruff or itchy scalp with white flakes, do seek advice from a dermatologist to recognize the purpose of it and get it handled earlier than it turns into excessive in nature.

    Alternative Therapies for Dandruff

    Home treatments for dandruff 1. Vinegar: To easy your scalp of useless pores and skin and fungi, blend 1/2 of a cup of white/apple cider vinegar with same quantity of water and pour the aggregate over your hair.
    Leave it on for 10 mins, then scrub and rinse off with a slight shampoo or simply water.

    2. Fenugreek (Methi): Make a paste of
    tablespoons of fenugreek powder and 1/2 of-cup water.
    Apply at the scalp and go away it in for 30-forty five mins; rinse off with a slight shampoo to bolster and easy your hair thoroughly.

    Lemon (Nimbu): Massage the juice of
    lemons into the scalp after which rinse off with a aggregate of lemon juice and water.
    Besides its antifungal properties, the acidity of the lemon will repair the herbal pH stability of the scalp.

    Salt/Baking soda: Generously sprinkle a few salt (desk or Epsom)/baking soda at the scalp and a rubdown lightly to exfoliate the scalp.
    Rinse off with a slight shampoo for a easy look.

    5. Neem: Add approximately
    handfuls of neem leaves to water (1/2 of litre), deliver it to a boil after which allow it soak overnight.
    Wash your hair with strained liquor.
    Neem is antifungal and relieves itching.

    6. Curd (Dahi): Apply fermented curd at the scalp and go away it in for approximately an hour.
    Then rinse off with shampoo.
    The acidic nature of curd will combat dandruff and act as a conditioner as well.

    7. Orange (Santra) peel: Apply a aggregate of orange peel and lemon at the scalp and wash off after 30 mins.
    The acidic nature of the aggregate situations the hair and combats dandruff.

    8. Honey (Sahed): Use 1/four teaspoonful of water combined with 1 tablespoon honey to rubdown the scalp for 2-three mins and rinse off after three hours for greasy dandruff unfastened hair.

    9. Coconut (nariyal) oil and camphor (kapoor): Take 2-three teaspoons of heat coconut oil and dissolve a pinch of camphor in it.
    Massage lightly at the scalp at night.
    Wash your hair withinside the morning with a slight shampoo.
    Repeat it a few times a week.

    10. Tea tree oil: Mix tea tree oil with water withinside the ratio (1:three) and spray it for your scalp.
    Pat the extra of the water however do now no longer rinse it off.

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